Why does Kant think human beings are ends in themselves?

EACH answer should be 300 words long, Quotation: You may quote directly from primary sources, i.e. the readings we have used in class.  Thisincludes Shafer-Landau, Korsgaard, and Feldman.  You must cite all quotations. Do not quote excessively in an attempt to up your word count; it will generally only weaken your answer!You may NOT use other sources (Wikipedia, SparkNotes, etc.).  1)One of Kant’s formulations of the categorical imperative is “Always act in such a way that you treat humanity, whether in yourself or another person, never merely as a means but always at the same time as an end.”  What does it mean to treat human beings as ends rather than merely means? Why does Kant think human beings are ends in themselves?  Do you agree with Kant that this is why we should treat persons ethically?  Give reasons for your answer. 2) Onora O’Neill contrasts Kantian and Utilitarian Ethics with regard to their emphasis on justice vs. beneficence.  Briefly say what O’Neill means by justice and beneficence (you may just give an example).  Then discuss this contrast.  What is the role of justice andbeneficence in each theory? How are they different?  3) What are the behaviors that DeWaal thinks constitute chimpanzee justice? Do you think that the chimpazees’ behavior really is ethical/moral (as opposed to instinctual or accidental or something else)? Why or why not? Do you think this behavior entitlesthem to special ethical/moral treatment by humans? Why or why not?  

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