The brand has become one of the key forces of our time and one of the most important vehicles of globalization. Critically evaluate this statement by discussing campaigns involving trans-national corporations AND nation-states

Course work will be evaluated on the criteria below:
Structure and clarity. The extent to which the essay is logically organised with a coherent argument. There should be an introduction and conclusion, which draws together the strands of the argument. Subheadings are a useful device for signalling the sequence of the essays argument.
Analysis. The essay should address relevant views and arguments in an informed and critical fashion.
Relevance. Consider the essay question carefully. The essay should answer the question.
Evidence. The essay should be informed by a range of the relevant reading.
Use of literature. The evidence should be used accurately, critically, appropriately and effectively.
Understanding. The essay should display an awareness of the key issues and an ability to tackle them confidently.
Presentation. Is the essay legible, grammatical, and fluently written.
Referencing. All sources should be used properly referenced in the text. A full and accurate bibliography should be included.

Session 6: Global brands and branding
This session examines how corporations look to promote and manage their brands on a global scale. It will also explore advertising strategies of global brands in trying to localise their products in their attempt to infiltrate local markets. Finally, we examine how ideas from the sphere of marketing and public relations have also been applied to individuals as part of a wider logic of branding.
Key Readings
Askegaard, S. (2006). Brands as a global ideoscape. In Schroeder, J. E., Salzer-Mrling, M., & Askegaard, S. (Eds). Brand culture, pp. 91-102. London: Routledge.
Tsoi, G (2016) Wang Hong: China\’s online stars making real cash, https://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-asia-china-36802769
Further readings:
Alden, D. L., Steenkamp, J. B. E., & Batra, R. (1999). Brand positioning through advertising in Asia, North America, and Europe: The role of global consumer culture. The Journal of Marketing, 75-87.
Barber, B. R. (2008). Shrunken sovereign: Consumerism, globalization, and American emptiness. World Affairs, 73-81.
Cayla, J. and Eckhardt, G.M., 2007. Asian brands without borders: regional opportunities and challenges. International Marketing Review, 24(4), pp.444-456.

Conway, C., 2014. The vlogger entrepreneurs. The International Journal of Entrepreneurship and Innovation, 15(4), pp.285-285.

Gehl, R.W., 2011. Ladders, samurai, and blue collars: Personal branding in Web 2.0. First Monday, 16(9).

Johansson, J. K., & Ronkainen, I. A. (2005). The esteem of global brands. Journal of Brand Management, 12(5), 339-354.

Jorge, A. (2015). Cristiano Ronaldo is cheap chic, Twilight actors are special: young audiences of celebrities, class and locality. Celebrity Studies, 6(1), 39-53.
Klein, N. (2000).No Logo: No Space, No Choice, No Jobs. London: Flamingo.
Littler, J. (2011). Introduction: celebrity and the transnational. Celebrity Studies,2(1), 1-5.
Meeuf, R., & Raphael, R. (2013). Transnational Stardom: International Celebrity in Film and Popular Culture. Palgrave Macmillan.
Murray, S. (2005). Brand loyalties: Rethinking content within global corporate media. Media, Culture & Society, 27(3), 415-435.

Shepherd, I.D., 2005. From cattle and coke to Charlie: Meeting the challenge of self marketing and personal branding. Journal of Marketing Management, 21(5-6), pp.589-606.

Van Dijck, J., 2013. You have one identity: performing the self on Facebook and LinkedIn. Media, Culture & Society, 35(2), pp.199-215.

Wong, L. L., & Trumper, R. (2002). Global celebrity athletes and nationalism ftbol, hockey, and the representation of nation. Journal of Sport & Social Issues, 26(2), 168-194.

Zhou, N., & Belk, R. W. (2004). Chinese consumer readings of global and local advertising appeals. Journal of Advertising, 33(3), 63-76.

Session 7: Place branding and soft power
Joseph Nye coined the term soft power over two decades ago to refer to the ways in which countries attempted to influence the activities of other states and peoples through communication and culture. In this session, we examine some historical and contemporary examples of soft power, including the Hollywood film industry, global sporting events, such as the Olympics, and news channels or agencies, and point to the key role that different media forms and genres have in these processes.
Key Readings
Grix, J., & Houlihan, B. (2014). Sports mega-events as part of a nation\’s soft power strategy: the cases of Germany (2006) and the UK (2012). The British journal of politics and international relations, 16(4), 572-596.

Nye, J S (2004) The Decline of Americas Soft Power. Foreign Affairs, 83, 3: 17-20
Further related reading

Bolin, G. (2006). Visions of Europe: Cultural technologies of nation-states. International Journal of
Cultural Studies, 9(2), 189206.

Boyd-Barrett, O., & Rantanen, T. (Eds.). (1998). The globalization of news. Sage.

Cottle, S., & Rai, M. (2008). Global 24/7 news providers Emissaries of global dominance or global public sphere?. Global media and Communication, 4(2), 157-181.

De Zoysa, R., & Newman, O. (2002). Globalization, soft power and the challenge of Hollywood. Contemporary politics, 8(3), 185-202.

Giffard, C. A., & Rivenburgh, N. K. (2000). News agencies, national images, and global media events. Journalism & mass communication quarterly, 77(1), 8-21.

Huang, S. (2011) Nation Branding and Transnational Consumption: Japan-Mania and the Korean Wave in Taiwan. Media, Culture and Society 33 (1):3-18
Horvit, B. (2006). International news agencies and the war debate of 2003. International Communication Gazette, 68(5-6), 427-447.

Kaneva, N (2011) Nation Branding: Toward an Agenda for Critical Research. International Journal of Communication 5, 117141
Leonard, M. (2002). Diplomacy by other means. Foreign Policy, 48-56.

Nye, J. S. (1990). Soft power. Foreign policy, (80), 153-171.

Otmazgin, N. K. (2012). Geopolitics and soft power: Japan\’s cultural policy and cultural diplomacy in Asia. Asia-Pacific Review, 19(1), 37-61.

Paradise, J. F. (2009). China and international harmony: The role of Confucius Institutes in bolstering Beijing\’s soft power. Asian Survey, 49(4), 647-669.

Seib, P. (2005). Hegemonic no more: Western media, the rise of Al-Jazeera, and the influence of diverse voices. International studies review, 7(4), 601-615.
Seib, P. (2010) Transnational Journalism, Public Diplomacy, and Virtual States. Journalism Studies, 11, 5: 734_744
Shin, H. (2009). Have you ever seen the Rain? And wholl stop the Rain?: The globalizing project of Korean pop (K?pop). Inter?Asia Cultural Studies, 10(4), 507-523.

Sun, W. (2009). Mission impossible? Soft power, communication capacity, and the globalization of Chinese media. International Journal of Communication, 4, 19.

Van Ham, P (2001) The Rise of the Brand State: The post Modern Politics of Image and Reputation. Foreign Affairs, 80, 5, September/ October: 1-6

Wang, J. (2006) Managing national reputation and international relations in the global era: Public diplomacy revisited. Public Relations Review, 32: 91-96
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