Is labeling theory a legitimate crime causation theory? Why?

The cultural deviance theory explains the causes of criminal behavior in urban areas are not about the poverty suffered in those areas but the product of a distinct lower-class culture whose focal concern is deviance against the norms of society.
The theory identified 3 influential versions:
• Lower-class culture as a whole is responsible for generating crime in urban areas.
• Urban lower-class areas produce subcultures that are responsible for the rise of crime.
• Subcultures of crimes in urban areas where individuals come together to band in creating crimes for their own personal gain and satisfaction
Write a 5–6 page paper answering the following questions:
• What would be another theory and strategy to avoid stereotyping individuals in the criminal justice system?
o Is labeling theory a legitimate crime causation theory? Why?
• In your opinion, where do gangs fit in the 3 influential versions of cultural deviance theory? Why?
• Which one of the two theories would you use to explain the following problem:
o The number of youths joining gangs in the inner city has doubled, while the number of gang leaders serving time in prison and being released after good conduct has increased. The crime rate for gang violence has risen 20% from last year.

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