Discuss the circumstances or context in which each event took place.

Order Description

Please see the attachments with directions I was not able to put all directions within this box.
This paper Must be 4 full pages!!
Directions 1:

1. Follow the Rubic
2. Do not utilize the bible or Christian references only Jewish specific references as he takes away extremely on this aspect for grading purposes.
3. Be thoughtful, be accurate, and support your analyses and positions with concrete examples from the course materialswith as many as you can. Detailed evidence is important!
4. You may draw on materials from outside the course, but I do not expect that of you. If you draw on external materials, they should be cited fully.
5. Write the paper with dispassion and objectivity.
6. I\’m hoping that this assignment will provide you with the opportunity to think broadly and creatively while demonstrating your knowledge of Jewish history and, that you will find such an exercise rewarding.
7. If you have any questions, don\’t hesitate to contact me. I can get direction from the professor
8. Do not make statements, factual information only: I was penalized extremely on my last paper for these types of statements.
9. Keep the paper in order the professor is very strict on the flow following the Rubic!
10. All date to be shown, if you mention a period ensure you have dates beside this
11. I will attach my mid-term paper completed by a writer from Superior Papers; please see how imperative it is to follow the Rubic and Be Specific
12. Attached is each lesson (from the school provided online book) separate of the book below stated next
13. Here is the other school Book: Scheindlin, R. P. A short history of the Jewish people: From legendary times to modern statehood. Oxford [u.a.: Oxford Univ. Press, 2000.



Due Date & Value

Papers will be worth 20% of your total course grade (200/1,000 points) and are DUE 11:55 p.m. ET TUESDAY April 25th.


This assignment asks you, first, to synthesize the materials weve covered during the course as a whole in regard to a relatively narrow topic and three specific examples of it; second, to think critically and comprehensively about the information youve been studying; and third, to draw-on a range of things to address a particular question (doing this more thoroughly than in the Discussion Forums). Accomplishing these tasks demonstrates a grasp of Jewish history that is both broad and based on specific details, can combine information of various types and from various sources, and can discern patterns and associations within a chaotic set of informationskills valuable in any career.


1. Select one of the following four domains of Jewish life:
o Papers on this domain should focus on religious practices and/or religious objects. The course has not focused on religious beliefs and, as such, religious beliefs should not be the emphasis of your papers.
Thought, Ideas, & Intellectual or Creative Interests or Activities
o This may include, for example, the kinds of things the Jews have written about; the genres or styles of their writings; the kinds of knowledge they explored; and more.
Cultural Patterns
o This may include, for instance, languages spoken, occupations worked, or diet, among other things.
Patterns of Social Relations with other Jews or with non-Jews
o This might include ways of being governed, ways of adjudicating disputes, ways of educating children, ways of caring for the needy, ways of interacting with non-Jews, ways in which Jewish men & women interacted, and so forth.

2. Describe three events, moments, or examples of the domain youve selected.

One of the events, moments, or examples should be from the Ancient Period; one should be from the Modern Period; and the third may be from any time period.

Consider the Ancient Period to comprise the years ending about 500 C.E. and the Modern Period to comprise the years 1500 C.E. to the present. The Medieval Period, thus, should be considered to begin at about 500 C.E. and to end at about 1500 C.E.

Discuss and describe only a PORTION of each time period you select. Limit the duration of each time period you discuss to a maximum of 300 years.

3. Discuss the circumstances or context in which each event took place.

Circumstances or context likely will consist of things, such as, the kind of governance or rule under which the Jews were living; the Jews legal rights and/or any limitations to them; access to land, occupations, etc.; the kinds of technologies (e.g., means of communication, tools and industries, printing presses, etc.) available at the times and places you discuss; and/or norms and practices relating to family, household, and gender.

To do this, you will need to be specific about the PLACE youre discussing as well as the time period

4. Suggest some of the factors that helped produce the events, moments, or examples youve described.

This task involves drawing on the information youve provided to meet number 3 (above) to help explain the things youve described for number 2 (above).

5. Finally, compare and contrast the factors you have discussed across your three time periods in order to suggest some of the things that have shaped Jewish history, experience, culture, and society.

This task involves drawing on what youve discussed to meet number 4 (above) to discuss some of the ways and reasons your three times periods are similar to one another and some of the ways and reasons they differ from one another.

Discuss this point with sophistication; avoid simple generalizations about the similarities and differences youve noted in the paper.

There are a broad range of possible domains and examples you might discuss. Dont try to take on too much! Three-five pages will require you to narrow your focus substantially. In the end, you will have suggested (by implication, not explicitly) some possible factors shaping human societies, in generalnot only the civilizations of the Jews.


Grading will be based on the following:

1. REASONINGas demonstrated in the papers structure, organization, focus, and its use of evidence to support the points made

Keep your topic as focused as possible, while presenting multiple or contradictory arguments whenever applicable.

Organize your papers according to standard writing techniques. That is, introduce your topic and themes, discuss them, and describe the conclusions that you have drawnbased on the evidence and information presented in your paper.

Keep your introduction specific and directly tied to the papers topic. Do NOT discuss history, human nature, the Jews, or similar broad generalizations in your introduction or conclusion.

Directly support your conceptual points with concrete examples and data. Use those examples and data to illustrate the conceptual points. State those points explicitly. Consider the nuances and complex distinctions to be made about your conceptual points, and mention the distinctions that you findavoid absolute statements and simplistic generalizations. Address and discuss multiple aspects and various sides of your conceptual points. Do not present an issue as an either-or dichotomy.

Focus on the factors that have produced the patterns that you discuss; avoid making generalizations about patterns that are not supported by information, illustrations, or data within your paper.

Be logical about causality; do not overstate the influence of the factors you present; be specific and direct with your causal assertions; limit the effects you ascribe to any particular factor (see the appendix at the end of these instructions for further notes on writing).

Refrain from making unsupported opinions and assertions. And, do not make predictions. As Lao Tzu said: Those who have knowledge, don\’t predict. Those who predict, don\’t have knowledge. –goodreads.com

Do NOT discuss whether a pattern or people have worth or value (e.g., DO NOT discuss Jews or others as good, bad, proud, strong, faithful, stubborn, greedy, etc.). Instead, look for patterns of behavior and factors that have contributed to shaping those patterns of behavior.


Rely on the information provided in the various course readings, and avoid expressing certainties about things for which our evidence is limited or partial.

3. SYNTHESISof readings, types of information, time periods, places, arguments, and perspectives; put-together and integrate these things to the extent possible in a short paper

Draw from all relevant course material to discuss your topic rather than from a single source. Single sources often present a limited perspective. This assignment asks you to demonstrate your grasp of core course themes, perspectives, and information; and to synthesize various elements of the courses required materials into a coherent, substantive presentation on a topic.

This paper is being assigned in place of a comprehensive final examination. Thus, it functions, in part, as a way for you to demonstrate that you have obtained a comprehensive grasp of the course materials. While I do not expect you to discuss all the relevant course materialthat would exceed this papers scopeyou should take into account material (from this course) that relates to your paper.

Consider the feedback I provided in your mid-term paper; I will look for similar kinds of things in this paper.

A poor presentation may mean that your points are not conveyed as well as they might be. So do not ignore those factors (also see Appendix: Writing Tips at the end of these instructions).

Read Dr. Sophia McClennens General Evaluation Rubric for Papers for a further sense of how to write your papers and how they will be graded: https://www.personal.psu.edu/users/s/a/sam50/rubric.htm.

If you have questions about what to write, be sure to discuss them with me before you submit your paper.

Format & Submission

Papers should be concise and 4 full pages long. The maximum length of each term paper is 4 pages (excluding any references page). Points will be deducted for each page over five-page maximum. This means you will need to make your points and present your information clearly and concisely. Papers should be typed and double-spaced.


Required course readings do not need to be listed on a separate works cited (references) page.
However, you should provide parenthetical citations for 1) quotations and 2) specific data, figures, or kinds of information that are NOT COMMONLY KNOWN, even when they are from a required course reading. Parenthetical citations are those placed within the body of the text. For example:
In 1994, the number of Jews living in Canada was 360,000 (Scheindlin 1998:258).
o 360,000 is a specific figure that is not commonly known.
o (Scheindlin 1998:258) is the parenthetical citation.
As Scheindlin (1998:53) writes, By decentralizing public worship, the destruction of the Temple thus contributed to the rabbis program of putting the responsibility for religious life in the hands of each individual.
o This is a direct quotation from a published work.
o (1998:53) is the parenthetical citation, along with Scheindlin.

Alternatively, quotations and specific figures may be cited in a footnote or endnote.

If you draw on publications that are not required for this course, cite them fully.

Any generally used bibliographic format is ok. I care only that the bibliography and in-text citations are correct, complete, and used consistently.

To be complete, a citation must include the following:
? authors name
? full title of the piece
? name of the work within which the piece is published (if applicable)
? editor(s) (if applicable)
? year published
? publisher and city of publication (if a book)
? page numbers (if a journal article or a book chapter)
? if a journal, information about the volume and issue

WEB SITES should include the URL (even though not all citation styles require this). Citations of web sites also should include the date you accessed the page, and the date the page was posted (if known), in addition to information about the pages author, its title, and its sponsor or publisher.

Guides for citing publications are available through the PSU library, at https://psu.libguides.com/CitationStyles

Appendix: Writing Tips

CAUSAL WORDS (i.e., words that imply one thing led to or caused another)

The words and phrases listed below usually assert a cause-and-effect relationship between entities, therefore should be used with caution, if at all. It often is better to omit, or replace them with alternatives.

Using the words and phrases listed below usually implies ONE, SINGLE causal factor, which often ignores or shows little understanding of the more complex set of relationships, factors, and effects characteristic of human social and cultural processes and histories.

Due to
Lead to
Led to


The words or phrases listed below are used commonly, and usually should NOT be.

Feel, felt, believe, believed. Write what you THINK rather than these. And, do not assume that you know what Jews in other times and places felt or believed.

Always; only. These words usually are hyperbole, exaggerations, or inaccurately claim absolutely NO exceptions to the matter being discussed.

Throughout. This word means that a thing took place or is spread out over an ENTIRE time period or place; often an inaccuracy. Try during, in, etc.

The same. Two things often may be similar or analogous to one another rather than PRECISELY the same.

Clearly, definitely, obviously. These words, and others like them, nearly always should be omitted. They merely assert a position, often without resting on sufficient supporting evidence within the body of the paper to make the position or conclusion clear to readers. Rather than asserting that a point is clear; show it to be so in the substance of your paper.

Strong. This is a vague word most of the time (there are many others that also are vague). Vague words often detract from a papers quality by assuming something has been explained when it has not been. In this case, for example, by writing strong, the writer might have meant muscular, committed, persistent, insightful, creative, or something entirely different.


Write a paper on what the JEWS did or have done, NOT on what was done TO them by others.
o Write a paper on how the Jews have lived; that is, on their lifeways, practices, customs, behavioral patterns, social organizations, institutions, etc.

If you write about the Holocaust, be sure to discuss what the JEWS did during, before, and/or after the Holocaust. Do not limit the paper to a description of what was done to the Jews during this event. TO DO THIS, WRITE ABOUT A PERIOD OF AT LEAST 50 YEARS; DO NOT LIMIT YOUR DISCUSSION OF THE HOLOCAUST (if you address that topic at all) TO 1933-1945.

Similarly, I strongly discourage papers that focus on vague, stereotypical topics such as persecution, hostility, anti-Semitism, etc. These topics generally lead to weak papers that present the Jews as victims, and are likely to obscure the characteristics of their civilization.
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